Enterprise IoT Controller Design Patterns

1.1       Manual and auto conditional control switch

How can IoT systems auto/manual control mode be based on specific condition or use case?

1.1.1      Problem

Based on the condition or use case system needs to dynamically decide which control to be auto and which to be manual.

1.1.2      Solution

A use-case based switch-case control loop, that decides which all control to be auto and which manual based on the specific use-case. Following figure depicts manual-auto steering control based on three different condition/use-case.

1.1.3      Application / Implementation

System could detect the current use case automatically or manually the current use case can be indicated. For each use case (eg., ACC, LKA, PA) and for each control (eg., speed, steering), the default control (auto / manual) is predefined by the system. Thus, default control (auto / manual) is enabled.

1.1.4      Examples / Use-cases: ACC – Adaptive Cruise Control

Use-Case/Control Steering control Speed control
Highway drive (ACC) Manual Auto
Parking Assistance (PA) Auto Manual
Lane Keeping (LKA) Auto Manual

Driver and automated system shares control over the vehicle. An example would be Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) where the driver controls steering and the automated system controls speed. In case of Parking Assistance and Lane Keeping use cases, steering is automated while the speed is manual.

1.2       Manual and Auto co-ordinated control (Hands-off, Level 2)

How can IoT systems co-ordinate across simulataneous manual and auto control with manual being default and higher priority?

1.2.1      Problem

An autonomous IoT system controls the system and processes in an automated manner without the need for constant human intervention. However, it should be possible to have a manual override by an expert (SME). The coordination between manual and automated control needs to be dynamic and spontaneous. System should dynamically detect presence of a manual command/input and give priority to manual control. In the absence of manual control, system needs to revert-back to automatic control instantaneously.

1.2.2      Solution

The IoT autonomous controller, controls the IoT system continuously, while observing constantly for a manual input. In case of presence of any manual input system follows the manual control.

1.2.3      Application

1.2.4      Examples / Use-cases

Autonomous cars: Hands-off: The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to immediately intervene at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. The shorthand “hands off” is not meant to be taken literally. In fact, contact between hand and wheel is often mandatory to confirm that the driver is ready to intervene.

1.3       Auto aided Manual Control

How can IoT systems operating in manual mode be assisted by auto control?

 

1.3.1      Problem

An IoT system operating in manual control mode may be difficult to operate due to human limitations.

 

1.3.2      Solution

An auto aid can assist the manual efforts thus helping the operator.

1.3.3      Application

The manual input is constantly monitored with the help of sensors and the received input is proportionately amplified with the help of auto aid.

 

1.3.4      Examples / Use-cases

  1. Power Steering in a Vehicle. Manual control aided by auto power.
  2. Microphone and Sound Amplifier.

 

1.4       Manual System Control with Auto override

How can IoT systems operating in manual control mode be overridden by auto control?

1.4.1      Problem

An IoT system control can be set to manual or auto or coordinated. While the system is exclusively in manual / auto mode, the respective control (manual / auto) is activated. However, while operating in manual mode if the health condition of the human operator goes bad then it can result in a catastrophe. 

1.4.2      Solution

When set to manual mode, the manual control is active. The system monitors the manual health continuously. In case, abnormality is detected in manual health, the system switches to auto mode automatically.

1.4.3      Application

Health monitoring sensors constantly monitor the operator health. Based on the health condition the exclusive manual/auto switch output is overridden.

1.4.4      Examples / Use-cases

Aircraft in manual mode, pilot unconscious, system can override the control

1.5       Manual System Control with Auto override

How can IoT systems operating in manual control mode be overriden by auto control?

1.5.1      Problem

An IoT system control can be set to manual or auto or coordinated. While the system is exclusively in manual / auto mode the respective control (manual / auto) is activated. However, while operating in manual mode if the health condition of the human operator goes bad then it can result in a catastrophe.

1.5.2      Solution

When set to manual mode, the manual control is active. System monitors the manual health continuously. In case, abnormality is detected in manual health, system switches to auto mode automatically.

1.5.3      Application

Health monitoring sensors constantly monitor the operator health. Based on the health condition the exclusive manual/auto switch output is overriden.

1.5.4      Examples / Use-cases

  1. Aircraft in manual mode, pilot unconscious, system can override the control

1.6       Automated System control with emergency alerts (Eyes-off, Level 3)

How can IoT systems operate in auto mode and alert system state?

1.6.1      Problem

While an IoT system is running in auto mode several abnormalities in system parameters and system state can occur. This can result in subsequent system failure.

1.6.2      Solution

An IoT sytem running in auto mode need to monitor and notify system state to the operator. Thus, the operator be aware of system abnormalities and impending system failures and take corrective action.

1.6.3      Application

The autocontrolled IoT system can monitor the system state and raise notifications of different severity based on the abnormality level, while, the auto control continues to function as programmed.

1.6.4      Examples / Use-cases

  1. Automatic temparature control in a plant, when control fails it can raise alert Critical/Major/Minor depending on the state
  2. Car engine temparature raise alarm, engine stops at some threshold level

1.7       Fully Automated System Control (Mind-off Robotic control, Level 4)

How can IoT systems continue to operate in auto mode in all conditions?

1.7.1      Problem

A fully automated IoT system can experience several abnormalities / exceptions during operation.

1.7.2      Solution

The fully automated IoT system can have a feedback loop to monitor abnormalities and coarse correct the system behaviour or halt the system in case of emergency.

1.7.3      Application

The fully automated IoT system can have a monitoring system to observe abnormalties and provide feedback to the controller logic to correct the operations. In case of emergency it can trigger the controler to halt the system.

1.7.4      Examples / Use-cases

  1. Car fuel injection
  2. Traffic light